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The Publications -  medium of the past centuryЕ



Schools of the Soviet Union have a good tradition. Every year they invite the former pupils of the school to a meeting. They inнvite them to a meeting with the teachers and the pupils of the tenth forms.

Many people visit schools on these days. Former school-children have different professions now. They work at mills and collecнtive farms. Many boys serve in the army or study at different inнstitutes.

The director opens the meeting. He makes a short speech. He speaks about life and work in the Soviet Union, about the duty of the Soviet people. "Each man of the Soviet Union serves his people: he works for peace, he helps to build communism. The writer serves his people with his pen, the farmerЧwith his tractor; the teacherЧwith the book and his word.".  The director reads some letters. from the former pupils of his school. They send letters to him from different towns and villages of the USSR.

The visitors listen to the director. Then they speak too. Each visitor makes a short speech. Each visitor speaks of his юЄ her work. The tenth-formers listen to the visitors with interest. Then they put questions to them. The meeting comes to an end late in the evening.


V.P.G, A.S.L, УEnglishЕФ, 1960


In recent years Soviet explorers have been especially active. It is difficult to say which of their explorations has been the most successful. The Russians have made great progress in each field:

political, industrial, agricultural, physical and many others: they have given intensive attention to all of them.          Soviet explorers have

applied the results of their explorations more                energetically than in any other country.

The Russians have done much in both Arctic and Sub-Arctic. They have done more to the development and exploitation of their Arctic lands and waters than has either the United States or Canada in their northern territories.

The developments that have taken place are of great value to the Russians. From northern territories they have taken much of the timber and the mineral.

An enormous wealth of supplies has come to them from the north.

Rivers which a few years ago were only shown vaguely as irregнular lines on an almost featureless map have opened great possibilнities for traffic in the Soviet Arctic. They have also supplied the power to produce millions of feet of sawn timber for home use and export, and to operate mines in areas almost quite unknown until Soviet geologists surveyed them.

With airplanes suitably winterized for operation in northern areas the Soviet aviators have carried out the aerial mapping of the Rusнsian Arctic and Sub-Arctic areas on such a scale as no one has ever apнplied to outlying regions in any other country.

With the help of observation from airplanes the Soviet ships have made the north-east passage an established fact.

The soundings of the Arctic Ocean made by courageous Soviet airmen who have to land on ice far from shore are of the greatest importance to geophysicists who study the structural formation of the world. The soundings of the Arctic Ocean have offered a new aspect of the earth's outline.

V.P.G, A.S.L, УEnglishЕФ, 1960


Scientific weather observations are of great importance to our inнdustry and agriculture. They are also important for aviation and navigation. There are many weather observation stations in the USSR. These stations are in different parts of our country. People who work there report scientific weather observations to the central weather bureau. Weather observers determine all the weather factors at regular intervals and send the results of their observations to the centre by telegraph.

At each weather station there hang many different kinds of highly sensitive barometers and thermometers, which determine the air pressure and the air temperature. There stand special devices which record hours of sunshine, wind velocity and wind direction.

There is a special instrument which records the movements of the clouds. In order to foretell successfully the local weather changes, the observers accurately determine all these factors. There are special hours of the day when the central weather bureau reports the state of the weather to all parts of the country over the radio. In their reports there is always a forecast for a day in advance. They base their forecasts upon a knowledge of the weather conditions all over the country.

As they make forecasts for a large region, there are same days when the forecast is incorrect for a particular locality.

The work at the weather observation stations goes on regularly, without any interruption, in spite of any weather conditions. It often needs firmness and selflessness. Meteorologists who work in the Polar regions sometimes make their observations in heavy snow-storms and hard frosts. They are firm and fearless men. There was not a single day when they did not do their duty.



by Eugene Fedorov,

Hero of the Soviet Union


... We recorded our observations four times a day. We kept a Weather Journal, in which we made records about cloudiness, for, atmosphere conditions, direction and velocity of the wind every two hours.


February, 1, 1938

8Ч 10 o'clock. We have a heavy snow-storm today. About two o'clock there appeared a wide crack of irregular form near the storeнhouse. There are several cracks near the station. We moved the store to another place.


February, 2

21 o'clock. There is a high wind. today. I am on duty with Ernst. At 9 we noticed a new crack. We moved the radio equipment to another place. Then Peter and I went out to look at the ice. New cracks appeared in the region of the camp. They widen. At 18 o'clock I made my regular meteorological observation. It is cloudy. We are tired. Everyone is calm.


February, 7

20 o'clock. Another snow-storm today. The barometer dropped sharply. When is it ever calm weather here?


V.P.G, A.S.L, УEnglishЕФ, 1960


by George Marrion

During my visit to Russia in 1950 I learned one big thing, learned it beyond any possibility of doubt; no one in the Soviet Union thinks of any war adventures. The Russians think only of work.

The way how people work in the Soviet Union does not suggest a wish to stop where they stand. Quite the contrary, they tell you that they build with their own hands something that did not exist in Russia yesterday, and they know that they will have something  tomorrow that does not exist anywhere in the world.

On November 25, 1933 the leading scientists of the Soviet Union met in the Academy of Science in Moscow. There were geologists, engineers, agriculturists, economists, physicists, chemists and many other specialists. The subject of discussion was: How to remake the Soviet Union.

Behind the speaker's platform at the very start of the opening session there was a huge map of the Soviet Union which suddenly lighted up and showed everybody what the Soviet Union must look like after the completion of three Five Year Plans. There were black lines showing dams and red lines showing canals. There were blue spaces marking areas which were to become irrigated fields and green spaces marking forests, and blue rivers flowing into new seas and (lotted lines showing hydroelectric stations.

The Soviet people could complete only two Five Year Plans. The war interrupted the third.

After the war the Soviet government started its peaceful work anew and, put forward a series of new projectsЧthe Kara-Kum Canal was one of them. The word Kara-Kum means Black Sands.

There are two big rivers cutting through the desert in TurkmeniaЧthe Amu-Darya and the Sir-Darya. They both begin in the mountains. They both flow uselessly into the Aral Sea while the burning tropical sun and strong winds blowing from the East dry up the adjoining land and make it waterless, treeless and lifeless.

The Amu-Darya is the largest river in Central Asia. It is nearly 1, 650 miles long, and its flow of water is as great as that of the Nile.

There was a time when the Amu-Darya river flowed into the Caspian instead of the Aral Sea.

From the study of old manuscriptsЧArabic, Chinese, Persian and Greek Ч historians were able to establish the fact that the Amu-Darya river changed its sea many times. Last time it left the Caspian and went over to the Aral Sea in 1575. All attempts to turn the river into its former bed gave no practical results.

Now by means of this great waterway the builders of the canal will change the desert into blossoming gardens. The Kara-Kum Canal will be a great irrigation system, providing hundreds of thousands of acres of grassland and new cotton land.

Formerly the Turkmen people used to say: "Life dies out when the water ceases to flow". Today they say: "Life begins where the water begins to flow."


V.P.G, A.S.L, УEnglishЕФ, 1960


univer RF

univer World




лyou can become a communist only when you enrich your mind with all the treasures created by mankind╗


The education system in the U. S. S. R. differs fundamentally from that in capitalist countries. This difference arises from the very nature of the U. S. S. R., which is a state of a new typeЧ a socialist state.

Before the Great October Socialist Revolution about 75 per cent of the population of Russia were illiterate. Now illiteracy is almost completely eliminated. This remarkable success in the sphere of public education was achieved in an incredibly short space of time thanks to the great attention devoted to it by the Communist Party and the Soviet Government.

Life progresses rapidly and sets the education system new tasks.

One of the most significant innovations is practical work in factories and on farms, where work is adapted to the normal production and every student is supervised by a skilled worker.

The Soviet School devotes great attention to proper education of the young generation. It follows the advice of the great founder of the Soviet State Ч V. I. Lenin, who advised young people not to restrict themselves to schools but to link education and knowнledge with the labour of workers and peasants.

That the Soviet Constitution made education available to all, irrespective of age, class and nationality, resulted in a steady and ever increasing growth8 in the number of students in all the Union Republics of our country and consequently in the number of scientists and technicians.

At present there are over 760 various colleges in our country, about two hundred of which train future engineers for different branches of industry. Among them are Ч industrial, machine-build ing, transport, oil, automobile, power, textile, chemical, milling and metallurgical institutes, as well as the institutes of agricultuнral machine-building, steel, non-ferrous metals, etc.

The training course usually lasts from 5 to 6 years. Each year is divided into two semesters (terms). The curriculum (programme) for the first- and second-year students generally includes such subjects as mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, strength of materials, descriptive geometry, elements of machines, drawing, history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a foreign language, and a number of others, the study of which is followed by a profound study of special subjects. It is of great importance that the study of theory is accompanied by practical training in accordance with a prearranged programme.

All graduates from higher schools have every opportunity to apply their knowledge according to their speciality.

Our Constitution says: "Citizens of the U. S. S. R. have the right to work, i. e., (that is), the right to guaranteed employment and payment for their work in accordance with its quantity and quality".


M.S.K, I.A.G, УStudentsЕФ, 1961

Atomic Energy

Atomic energy is the foundation of all the processes taking place in our universe, and its discovery signifies the beginning of man's mastery over much greater forces of nature than hitherto known. The transformation of atomic nuclei has been found to take place within the stars at temperatures of millions of degrees, their radiation, in particular the radiation of the sun, being the result of this process.

Nuclear energy was first put to peaceful uses by the Soviet Union when on June 27, 1954, it built the world's first industrial atomic power plant. This plant is known to have a capacity of 5, 000 kilowatts. It supplied the industrial and agricultural centres of the adjacent areas with electric power. Work is now in progress on the construction of industrial power reactors of much greater capacity.

It should be noted in this connection that a nuclear power plant of 100, 000 kilowatt capacity would consume daily about 200Ч250 grams of uranium, a thermal power generator of compaнrable capacity requiring hundreds of tons of coal.

The infinitesimal amount of nuclear fuel required makes it possible to build power reactors in any part of the world. This is especially important for areas which have no fuel ё hydro-power resources.

A power reactor has no need of air, for the heat generated in the uranium pile is the result of nuclear fission, not of combustion. That means power reactors can be built underground to protect the population from radioactive radiation and the products of radioнactive disintegration. The possibility of supplying a power reactor with sufficient fuel to last a great length of time and of operaнting it by remote control will allow us, in time, to build a series of such automatic underground reactors to keep vast areas supplied with electric power.


M.S.K, I.A.G, УStudentsЕФ, 1961




We, Group No. 107, undertake the following socialist obligations and challenge Group No. 103 to socialist competition according to the following points:


1. To have 100 per cent 'Good' and 'Excellent' marks In all spelling and transcription tests given before May 1.


2. To have 90 per cent 'Good' and 'Excellent' marks to all control-work given before May 1.


3. To arrange two English evenings, one at the end of February, and the other at the end of April, In which every member of the group "Will take part, e. g. by reciting a poem, telling a story, singing a song, acting in a sketch, etc.


4. Every student pledges him - or herself to fulfil the norms for at feast one of the military budges, e. g. ╬╥╬, the Voroshllov Shooting Badge, the Red-Cross Badge, the Chemical and Air Defence Badge, etc.


5. To organize group reading of newspapers for 10 to 15 minutes daily.


6. To have 100 per cent attendance at all lectures, etc., on international questions.


L.T, E.D, УAdvanced engЕФ, 1946



The Communist Party and the Soviet Government attach the greatest importance to creating the best possible working and living conditions for all the Soviet citizens. There are dozens of research institutions in our country which are engaged in studyнing current methods of production and are working out new ones intended to improve working conditions in all branches of industry.

To meet the ever increasing requirements of mass proнduction and, at the same time, to make the working conditions as healthy as possible, close collaboration between men of science and men of practice is necessary. In the Soviet Union, science is placed at the service of labour protection. Constant re-equipнment of factories and mills is taking place: more up-to-date machines and devices, more effective ventilators, dust catchers, water and air screens, shields for machine tools operating at high speeds and many other innovations intended for making labour healthier and safer are being constantly introduced.

Let us take for instance the Zaporozhye Coking Plant. All its shops are mechanized. Trains loaded with coal are consнtantly on the move*. As a 60-ton car runs up to the powerful coal-charging and unloading machine, it is easily tilted and instantly emptied. A slight turn of the handle is all that is needed to bring about the tilt. The efficiency of such a machнine, operated by a single man, is 1, 500 tons of coal per hour.

The plant's mechanized warehouse is equipped with a bridge crane and other efficient hoisting and transporting facilities. All the operations involved in the charging of the highly efficient coke-ovens are mechanized. So, hard manual labour is no longer required

Gases and vapours formed on charging are sucked into suction chambers. This makes the labour of the workers less harmful.

Coke quenching Is  automatized. The  coke-oven gas is drawn out by powerful centrifugal ventilators.

The plant has well-equipped departments for recovery and manufacture of the by-products of coking. For instance, ammonia is completely recovered in the chemical shop in the form of ammonium sulphate.

There is a special chemical shop in which such harmful admixtures as hydrogen sulphate, cyanide compounds, etc., are removed from the coking gas. The water carrying the chemical waste passes through apparatuses which remove all noxious matнter and recover the phenoles they contain.

Scores of various widely used products are obtained at this chemical shop. Coke and gas are utilized at metallurgical works, coke smalls are used for the agglomeration of iron ore, ammonium sulphate is used as fertilizer, tar and other distillation products are largely used for various purposes.

The workers are provided with coveralls and are supplied with special food, and specific safety measures are taken for their protection.

The factory grounds are turned into gardens with trees, flowers and fountains to provide fresh air and a pleasant place to spend a part of dinner-time.


M.S.K, I.A.G, УStudentsЕФ, 1961


Moscow, the glorious capital of the Soviet Union, is one of the oldest Russian cities. The 800th anniversary of its foundation was celebrated on September 7, 1947.

In the course of its long history Moscow has played an outstandнing part in the life of the Russian state.

It was at the head of the Russian people's struggle against the foreign invaders in the 14th and in the 17th centuries.

When the French armies invaded Russia in 1812, Moscow again inspired the Russian people in their heroic struggle. And at the vilнlage of Borodino, near Moscow, Napoleon's armies received the decisive blow.

In 1917 Petrograd and Moscow were the first cities where the Soviets won the final victory.

Moscow is old and young at the same time, because after the Great October Socialist Revolution she began a new life, the life of the capital of the first socialist state in the world.

In the years of the Five-Year Plans Moscow has become a city of a new type, an industrial centre with giants of modern construcнtion.

The crooked streets of old Moscow have been replaced by wide straight avenues. The multistorey buildings that are so well seen from the farthest corners of Moscow, the numerous new parks and boulevards have made the city beautiful. The network of the underнground railway connects the different parts of the city. The improved traffic system has made it easy for the Moscovites to get to the farthest districts of the city in the shortest time possible.

Moscow is the heart of Russia's culture, of her science, art and literature. The lives and work of many great revolutionaries, scienнtists, writers, painters and composers are closely connected with Mosнcow. It is the home of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R., of the oldest University in the land, of many higher schools and scienнtific institutions.

Moscow is the political centre of the country. The Supreme Soviet, the highest organ of state power in the U. S. S. R., the Council of Ministers, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Minнistries and the Supreme Court are all in Moscow.

Moscow is also dear to the Soviet people for her, historical places and monuments: the Kremlin, the famous Red Square and many others.

In the hard days of the Great Patriotic War Moscow was the nation's military Headquarters. From here the State Council for Defence directed the military operations At the approaches to Moscow the Soviet Army inflicted serious defeat on the fascist troops

It was in Moscow, in the Red Square, that the Soviet people saw the Victory parade.

And now that the imperialists are trying to unleash a new war, the peace-loving nations look with hope to Moscow, the capital of a great socialist state and a mighty stronghold of peace.

Moscow is a beautiful city But no words can express how beautiful it is in its holiday attire

Red flags are floating in the air. Everywhere you can see portraits of our leaders, slogans in golden letters. Buildings are decorated with scarlet silk and velvet, pine and fir-tree garlands. There are flowers everywhere.

Columns of joyful and proud people are streaming into the Red Square to demonstrate the achievements of their peaceful labour and their devotion to the Soviet Government and the Communist Party. In the evening thousands of people crowd the Moscow streets and squares. Sounds of music are coming from everywhere. The lights of the illumination are flooding the city. Millions of sparks of salute fireworks are scattering in the dark skies.


L.A.A, M.V.B, УStudyЕФ, 1959


The Great Writer's Dream

"The future Siberia to be created by the harnessed and man-mastered eleнments of the Angara and the great Northern Route across Siberia, linking the latter with three oceans, presents a fantastic picture, breath-taking in scope." Maxim Gorky

The dream of our great writer. Maxim Gorky, has come true. Right in the heart of West Siberia, nearly 2, 000 miles from Moscow, in the extensive flood-land of the Ob, towers a huge hydroнelectric power station. A new sea, the Ob Reservoir, has been brought into being by the will of Man. The abundant waters of the Ob, spanned by the new bridge, operate the turbines which generate the power transmitted along high-voltage transmission lines to the Kuzbas coal field and agricultural enterprises.

The reinforced concrete structures of hydroelectric power stations rise on the Angara and the Irtish, the latter supplying not only Siberia, but also Kazakhstan, with electricity. As to the Anнgara, its swift flow harnessed by a stone dam is directed against the blades of the turbines of the Angara hydro-power plant.

Among the many leading industrial centres of Siberia one must mention Novosibirsk╗ Tomsk with its University, Krasnoyarsk, the home of powerful electric cranes and self-propelled harvester combines, Barnaul, the centre of the grain area and textile industry, and others. Dozens of new mining towns have sprung up in the Kuzbas. For instance, in the very foothills of the Ala Tau Mounнtains the city of Novokuznetsk has grown, of the first-born of Siberia's metallurgical industry.

Life has surpassed the great writer's dream.


M.S.K, I.A.G, УStudentsЕФ, 1961


"I have been working on Jet enнgines for forty years, and I thought that trips to Mars - would only start after many hundreds of years. But times are changing. I believe that many of you will witness the first journey beyond the earth's atmosphere."

K. Tsiolkovsky

(From a recorded speech broadcast from the Red Square in Moscow on May 1, 1933)

The problem of jet propulsion for space travel is known to have been closely approached, first by Tsiolkovsky, who developнed the theory of rocket flying, theoretically proving the possiнbility of utilizing a jet-propelled plane for interplanetary commuнnications, then, almost twenty years later, about 1920, by Goddard ,  and Oberth.

We know rockets to have found application in the forties of the current century for the exploration of the Universe, and for the study of our own planet and the atmosphere that surrounds it. By day and night the upper air is known to glow with a soft unnoticed fluorescence. It has also been found to be bombarded by intense ultra-violet and X-rays from the sun as well as by cosmic rays, the latter ending their paths from outer space in violent nuclear collisions high above the Earth, generating huge electric currents to cause magnetic storms.

These phenomena being assumed to be of immense practical importance for science, they are subject to thorough investigation and study. Though attempts to carry instruments to great height to study the otherwise inaccessible environments have been going on ever since the dawn of experimental science, it is, however, the advent of high altitude rockets that has opened at last the possibility of direct observations in cosmic space. Successful launchings of satellites; which have universally become known as Sputniks, were first accomplished in the U. S. S. R. in 1957.

Their construction has called for not only new materials capable of withstanding severe stresses and high temperatures developed, but also new technological processes and methods of design, to say nothing of the extremely sensitive electronic apparatuses and devices each satellite is to be equipped with.

The wide use of semiconductor elements (transistors) has made it possible for space vehicles not to depend entirely on their surнroundings for generating power, as their batteries are able to transform the energy of solar rays directly into power necessary to operate all the apparatuses they are equipped with. This remarkнable feature alone makes them well-adapted for the exploration of conditions in the space where gas density is believed to be rather low. The various and numerous instruments housed in space laboнratories are intended to be carrying out observations and transнmitting the recorded data to the special receiving stations set up in the U. S. S. R.

The invasion of the cosmos by "flying laboratories" has made it possible for man to settle a number of very important problems concerning the structure of ionosphere, the concentration of posiнtive ions in the very high atmosphere, the temperature conditions for flying in outer space etc.

But this achievement, great as it is, was soon overshadowed by successive launchings of lunar rockets. It was with Lunik I that the Soviet Union succeeded in orbiting 794 pounds of scientific instruments that swept past the moon and went into an orbit around the Sun.

With Lunik II it allowed the observers all over the world to watch the first man-made apparatus hit the Moon, the accuнracy with which it went along the prescribed orbit having earned a great deal of admiration all over the world.

With Lunik III the Soviet scientists, constructors and technoнlogists accomplished another feat to be wondered at: they sent a satellite around the Moon to take the picture of its previously unseen side and to provide vital information about the Moon's atmosphere. While Lunik III may be said to have actually paved the way to overcoming flight problems, such as, say, directional control near the Moon's surface, the unprecedented landing of the Soviet spaceship II on August 18, 1960 has actually demonнstrated the possibility of sending returnable spaceships along any prearranged orbit.

The ship is known to have safely brought back its passengersЧ dogs, mice and insects.. This led to a still more wonderful achievementЧmanned space flights,Чthe first attempt: being successнfully accomplished on April, 12, 1961, with Y. Gagarin on board.

It may be taken for granted, we are coming close to the realiнzation of what Tsiolkovsky was working at and dreaming of. The time when space vehicles will reach the nearest planets appears not to be very far off. So, Mars and Venus may be expected to be photographed and explored in the few years to come thus providing new data necessary to settle one of the most burning problems that seems to have been attracting the attention of scientists for ages: is there life in other planets?


M.S.K, I.A.G, УStudentsЕФ, 1961






The days of the International Youth and Students' Festival in Budapest were wonderful days of unforgettable meetings and friendship.

The hearts of the people of Budapest and of all Hungary opened to their young foreign comrades Ten thousand foreigners felt themнselves welcome guests in the capital of Hungary.

In the course of the Festival, at the numerous sporting contests find concerts, young people of different countries became friends.

Especially warmly greeted were the members of the Soviet delegation Ч the delegation of the mighty stronghold of peace

During the International Student Sporting Games young Soviet sportsmen won one hundred and fourteen gold medals, and the whole Soviet delegation took the first place in the contests.

At the Festival the Soviet delegation gave a great number of concerts attended by thousands of foreign guests and citizens of Budapest. Every performance of our delegation was a real triumph of Soviet art.

One cannot fully realize what a Soviet delegation concert at the Festival is unless one has attended it and seen the excited faces of the people. In fact, to grasp the emotion of the audience one roust know the languages of the world. Yet, when in the course of a perнformance, an excited young man from Viet Nam addressed a Greek in his own language, the latter answered in his mother-tongue, upon which they both nodded, looking quite satisfied.

There seemed to be some "law" of understanding at the Festival. Russians and Hungarians, Bulgarians and Chinese managed to conнverse without knowing one another's language.

After the final performance of the Soviet ballet, there was a storm of applause that lasted for forty minutes.

A festival is not only a show of national culture; it is not only sporting games and contests.

Those who demonstrate their art at the theatre, concert halls and stadiums of the festival are the delegates of the peoples who long for peace and happiness.

Young representatives of various races come together smashing all geographical and political barriers Ties of friendship bind people of different towns, countries, continents.

An International Youth Festival is a mighty demonstration with the slogan "Peace " Millions of young people all over the world say "No" to war.

It was like that at the International Youth Festival in Prague;

it was like that in Budapest; it was like that in Berlin, Warsaw and Moscow. It will be like that until the final victory of peace all through the world.


L.A.A, M.V.B, УStudyЕФ, 1959

MARCH OF DEMOCRATIC YOUTH Words by L. Oshamn Music by A. Nouikov

One great vision unites us,

Though remote be the lands of our birth,

Foes may threaten and smite us,

Still we live to bring peace to the earth.

Every country and nation,

Stirs with youth's inspiration Ч

Young folks are singing,

Happiness bringing,

Friendship to all the world



Everywhere the youth is singing freedom's song,

freedom's song, freedom's song

We rejoice to show the world that we are strong,

we are strong, we are strong!

We are the youth, and the world acclaims our song

of truth,

Everywhere the youth is singing freedom's song,

freedom's song, freedom's song!

 We remember the battle,

And the heroes who fell on the field,

Sacred blood running crimson,

Our invincible friendship has sealed

All who cherish the vision,

Make the final decision,

Let's struggle for justice, peace

and good will

For peoples throughout the world



Solemnly our young voices

Take the vow to be true to our cause,

We are proud of our choices,

We are serving humanity's laws,

Still the forces of evil

Lead the world to upheaval.

Down with their lying!

End useless dying!

Live for a happy world!



L.A.A, M.V.B, УStudyЕФ, 1959



         Giant Plan for Peace and Plenty

         Moscow, Sunday.

Soviet Communist Party's new programme for Communism within lifetime of present generation is topic No. 1 here today.

Papers carrying full text of 50, 000-word document were eagerly bought up and informal discussion groups gathered in sun-drenched parks and squares.

I met engineering worker Alexander Smirnov taking his young sen for Sunday morning 'stroll. "Tell your readers that this plan for plenty is best demonstration of all what peace means to us," he said.

Said student on his way to riverside beaches at Serebranny Bor on outskirts of city: "It is programme for building of society of which pioneers of Socialism in your country as well as mine dreamed."

Draft programme spells out just what Communism will mean for Soviet man-in-the-street.

During next ten years Soviet Union will gradually go-over to 34- to 36-hour working week, with 30-hour week for miners and others doing arduous work. Transition to still shorter working week will begin between 1970 and 1980.

Setting itself aim of giving Soviet people highest living standard in world, Communist Party holds out prospect of more than 3 1/2-fold increase in incomes during next 20 years with especially large increases for lower-paid workers.

"To abolish war and establish everlasting peace on earth is historicнal mission of Communism. General and complete disarmament under strict international control is fundamental means of guaranteeing lasting peace."

Socialist State, declares programme, has entered new phase in its development. "State has begun to become nation-wide organisaнtion of working people in Socialist society."

So that "millions of workers may learn to govern" draft programme proposes that at least one-third of sitting deputies to any Soviets should withdraw to make way for new blood at each election, held every" four years in case. of Supreme Soviet and every two years for local Soviets.

Programmer advocates similar principle in Communist Party Itself.

"Particular Party workers may, by virtue of their generally recogнnised authority and high political, organisational and other abilities, be successfully elected for longer period. In that case, candidate concerned shall be considered elected provided he secures not less than three quarters of votes cast by secret ballot."

These measures will ensure collective leadership, greater influx of new blood and "rule out possibility of excessive concentration of power in hands of individual officials," draft declares.

Draft sets out main targets for breath-taking 20-year economic   plan, of which main aim is "to lay material and technical foundation lor Communism, within two decades."

Industry east of Urals, where there are immense natural riches, wil expand greatly, and "Soviet people will carry out daring plans to change courses of some northern rivers and regulate their flow in order to utilise vast quantities of water for irrigation of arid areas."

By 1970 Soviet industrial output will go up by 150 per cent, while by 1980 production will increase by not less than 500 per cent, giving Soviet Union highest per head output in world.

Agriculture, draft goes on, forecasting 250 per cent increase in output during coming 20 years, "will approach level of industry in technical equipment and organisation of labour, and dependence of'   agriculture upon elements will decrease considerably and ultimately

drop to minimum.

"Great objectives of working class can be achieved without world  war. Today conditions for this are more favourable than ever," draft

programme confidently declares.

     "Working class and its vanguardЧMarxist-Leninist partiesЧ prefer to achieve transfer of power from capitalists to working class

 by peaceful means, without civil war," it declares, making strong plea for broad unity in struggle against Big Business.

Its final words areЧ"Party solemnly proclaims: present generation of Soviet people shall live under Communism!"

Abridged from The Daily Worker,

July 31, 1961



In population figures the USSR ranks third in the world after China and India. The census statistics of 1970 gave the total popuнlation of the USSR at 241, 748, 000 people.

It was the fifth census since the establishment of Soviet power. The first was held on Lenin's initiative in 1920. The data obtained were used to evolve measures for rehabilitation of the national ecoнnomy wrecked in World War I and Civil War. The other censuses took place in 1926, 1939 and 1959. The latest national census was taken in the USSR because all countries in the world were to hold censuses of population in 1970 or there abouts on the recommendaнtions of the United Nations.

The data of every census in the USSR reflected the cardinal changes in the economic and social life of the country under Soviet power. Here are a few examples - in pre-revolutionary Russia the majority of the population was rural being engaged in agriculture. The urban population was only 15 per cent (1897). The census of 1936 showed 18 per cent of the total living in cities, but by 1939 the figure soared to 32 per cent; by 1959 it had reached 48 per cent and tit 1970 the proportion of city people was over 56 per cent. The if 1970 census estimated the urban population of the Soviet Union at 136 million, an increase of 36 million since the 1959 census.

The class composition of the population has greatly changed;

before the revolution the peasants Ч individual farmers and non-cooperated craftsmen Ч accounted for two-thirds of the population╗ and the bourgeoisie, landlords, merchants and kulaks for over 16 percent. Today the factory and office workers make up nearly 78 per cent of the population, and collective farmers and cooperated craftsmen 22 per cent.

Thanks to the successes of the health service and improve well-being, life expectation in the USSR is now 70 as against 38 in pre-revolutionary Russia. The death rate being low, and the birth rate rather high, the population of the country rises daily by more than 6, 000.

In the sex composition of the population there is a certain disproportion between the number of males and females By the beginнning of 1970 there were 111. 3 million men and 130. 4 million women,

that is 46. 1 per cent males to 53. 9 per cent females. The disproporнtion is the result of the heavy casualties among the male population

- in World War II. It is decreasing every year, but it will take some time to even out.

In pre-revoltitionary Russia about 75 per cent of the population were illiterate. Under Soviet power illiteracy has ben completely wiped out, and the Soviet Union has become a country of a hundred per cent literacy.

The national composition of the population is extremely diverse which makes the Soviet Union a multinational state More than 90 nationalities are indigenous. Along with such large nationalities as the Russians (over a hundred million people), Ukrainians (about forty million), Byelorussians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and others (of more than a million people), there are peoples numbering less than one thousand, such as the Aleuts, for example. The indigenous nationaliнties, comprising 97. 6 per cent of the total population, lave their own state organizations. The Ukraine and Byelorussia are members of the United Nations. Only ethnic groups of foreign origins (Germans, Poles, Bulgarians, Kurds, Greeks) have no state organizations of their own.

The distribution of the population over nation 1 territory is uneven. The average density of population is over 10 persons per square kilometer. But there are long-inhabited legions with several times the average density and sparsely populated areas, particularly in the north. Union Republics with the highest population densities are Moldavia, over 100 persons per square kilometer the Ukraine and Armenia. The population density in the European USSR is more than 30 persons per square kilometer, compared with only 3 persons in the Asiatic part. The most densely populated area is the centre of the European part, especially the Moscow Region, which includes Moscow╗ with about 250 persons per square kilometer. The Evenk National Region, the northeastern extremity, is the most thinly peopled area with only 0 01 persons per square kilometer

The 1970 census returns also provided data on the migration of the population The census showed a great population shift to the south of the country, especially to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. A population increase of 9. 8 million people in those sections of the country was not only accounted for by a high natural growth They owe 1. 2 million of the their population growth to migration. Large numbers of migrants went also to the Northern Caucasus and the Southern Ukraine.

The information obtained during the census also helped to stuнdy the so-called лpendulum migration╗, i. e. the time spent every day to get from place of residence to place of work or study. These data will be used to improve transport facilities.


V.I.Z, T.O.R, УЕ for students of geographyФ, 1974




G.Y. 2003

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